There is an apparent association between low vitamin D levels and an elevated risk of HIV disease progression among people beginning treatment for the virus, aidsmap reports. Publishing their findings in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, investigators studied members of the PEARL trial in eight low- and middle-income countries, as well as in the United States.
The HIV-positive study participants had progressed to the World Health Organization’s stage 3/4 of HIV disease within 96 weeks of starting on antiretrovirals (ARVs), or they had experienced virologic failure (two consecutive viral loads over 1,000 16 weeks after starting ARVs), or they had experienced immunologic failure (CD4s dropping below 100 after 48 weeks of ARVs). The researchers compared these participants to randomly selected HIV-positive people to determine if their vitamin D levels when they started taking HIV therapy were linked to a raised risk of worse clinical outcomes.
Forty-nine percent of the participants had low vitamin D upon starting HIV treatment. Low vitamin D at this point was linked to a 2.13-fold increased risk of clinical disease progression and a 2.13-fold increased risk of virologic failure. Some evidence suggested that low vitamin D may also be linked to a worse CD4 response to ARVs, although there was not enough evidence to prove the association.
The researchers believe this research supports the need for future study into whether supplementing for vitamin D affects outcomes of HIV treatment. They say that there is a biologic plausibility that low vitamin D would increase the risk of worse clinical outcomes during HIV treatment.
To read the study abstract, click here.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched their latest communication campaign under its Act Against AIDS initiative – Start Talking. Stop HIV. This new national HIV prevention campaign is the result of input from more than 500 gay and bisexual men from various racial and ethnic groups, ages, and geographic areas across the United States. The campaign was created by and for gay and bisexual men to promote open communication about a range of HIV prevention strategies for sexual partners.
Start Talking. Stop HIV. features messages that engage, inspire, and spark conversations between sexual partners and provides gay and bisexual men with practical tools and tips for talking about important HIV prevention topics like:
- HIV testing and their HIV status,
- Condoms and engaging in lower-risk sexual behaviors,
- Medicines that prevent and treat HIV, including the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and antiretroviral therapy (ART).
More than thirty years after the first diagnosis of AIDS in the United States, gay and bisexual men continue to be the population most severely affected by HIV nationwide, due to a number of complex factors.
Research shows that communication between sexual partners is associated with reduced risk behavior and increased HIV testing and HIV status disclosure; however, many gay and bisexual men may still find it difficult to talk openly with their sexual partners about HIV prevention.
A dedicated campaign website and Facebook Page provide conversation starters and accurate information to inform these life-saving conversations.
Starting antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for HIV before CD4 cells drop too low reduces the risk of AIDS and HIV-related illnesses, according to the same large study that proved early ARV treatment reduces the risk of HIV transmission by 96 percent, aidsmap reports. Called HPTN 052, the study was a large multi-site trial conducted in 13 sites in nine countries. Results were published in Lancet Infectious Diseases.
The trial randomized 1,762 HIV-positive participants who had CD4s between 350 and 550 to either begin ARVs immediately or to wait until their CD4 levels had either dropped to 250 or until they developed a symptomatic disease related to HIV. The median CD4 count at the study’s outset was 436. The participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years.
A total of 57 participants (6 percent) who started treatment early and 77 (9 percent) who delayed treatment experienced one or more of the following (considered a “primary outcome”): death, an AIDS diagnosis, tuberculosis (TB), a severe bacterial infection, cardiovascular disease, serious liver or kidney disease, non-AIDS cancers or diabetes. The cumulative two-year probability of such an outcome was 4.8 percent for the early treatment group, compared with 7.9 percent for the delayed treatment cohort. Although there was a 27 percent reduced risk of a primary outcome among those who started early, this difference was not statistically significant, meaning it could have occurred by chance.
Five percent of those in the early treatment group were diagnosed with an AIDS-defining event, compared with 7 percent among those who delayed treatment. The cumulative two-year probability of an AIDS diagnosis was 3.3 percent in the group that started ARVs early and 6 percent in those who delayed. Starting treatment early lowered the risk of an AIDS-defining illness by 36 percent, a difference that was statistically significant.
The U.S. Public Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released guidelines for the use of daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, for HIV infection, entitled: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States – 2014 [PDF 867KB].
These guidelines provide health care providers with recommendations on the use of PrEP to prevent HIV, and include a supplement [PDF 690KB] with additional materials and tools for clinicians who prescribe PrEP and their patients. These guidelines replace previous interim guidance released by CDC for the use of PrEP.
CDC recommends PrEP for HIV-uninfected patients at substantial risk for HIV infection, including patients who have any of the following indications:
- Is in an ongoing relationship with an HIV-infected partner;
- Is not in a mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who recently tested HIV-negative; and is a
- gay or bisexual man who has had sex without a condom or been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection within the past six months;
- heterosexual man or woman who does not regularly use condoms when having sex with partners known to be at risk for HIV (e.g., injecting drug users or bisexual male partners of unknown HIV status); or
- Has, within the past six months, injected illicit drugs and shared equipment or been in a treatment program for injection drug use.
PrEP is a powerful HIV prevention tool. However, for sexually active people, no prevention strategy is 100% effective. Therefore, the guidelines also recommend that physicians encourage patients to use PrEP with other effective strategies—like using condoms, testing for HIV with partners, reducing the number of partners, and having partners who are HIV positive take antiretroviral therapy—to provide even greater protection from HIV.
To achieve the full promise of PrEP, each of us has a critical role to play. Clinicians play a central role in increasing awareness and the delivery of this new prevention method when there are indications for its use. Advocates can help raise PrEP awareness and understanding about PrEP, especially in at-risk populations. Medical associations and professional organizations can help educate providers and share clinicians’ experiences delivering PrEP, and HIV prevention programs can integrate PrEP education into existing activities.
We mark a milestone with the release of these new guidelines—a promising tool for HIV prevention, and one that has the potential to alter the course of the U.S. HIV epidemic.
For more about PrEP and its use. Please visit the CDC PrEP page.
HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of melanoma (skin cancer), according to the results of a meta-analysis published in PLOS ONE. In short, people living with HIV had a 26% increase in their relative risk of melanoma compared to the general population. The risk increases to 50% for white-skinned people living with HIV.
The authors of the analysis therefore recommend fair-skinned people with HIV should get regular screenings for suspicious skin lesions and should be warned about the dangers of prolonged exposure to the sun. You can talk to your doctor about finding a specialist who can perform a skin cancer screening. To help prevent melanoma, it is also important to use sun block with an SPF of at least 15 on exposed skin, when outdoors.
Read the full article on aidsmap.com.
To find out about how indoor tanning (tanning beds) also increases the risk of melanoma, go to the CDC information page.
For tips on how to spot a melanoma, go to the Skin Cancer Foundation.
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