“HIV continues to disproportionately affect gay and bisexual men, even though new HIV infections declined among this population during the last decade,” said Stephen M. Perez, PhD, a nurse epidemiologist in the CDC‘s Division of HIV Prevention and lead author of the MMWR article.
“Also, progress in reducing new HIV infections among gay and bisexual men has not been equal—with factors like stigma, racism, discrimination, homophobia and others contributing to an unequal reach of HIV prevention and treatment and continued disparities.”
During 2018-2019, the CDC identified a number of concerning HIV clusters among MSM. By December 2021, 38 clusters that had been initially identified during 2018-2019 grew to include more than 25 people.
“The presence of a cluster suggests that HIV prevention and treatment have failed to reach a particular community, and that HIV is transmitting rapidly within that community,” Dr. Perez told Infectious Disease Special Edition.
The reason for it, in short, is due to issues like institutionalized racism in our health care system. So when we say Black men need to get tested for HIV, we’re not trying to stigmatize any particular group of people, we’re trying to get the word out so Black men can get tested and protect their health.
To address the problem, m4m (as part of the HIV Prevention and Care Project) is helping to provide free HIV self-test kits to anyone who resides in Pennsylvania. Kits are sent in the mail, in an unmarked package. Testing is easy and you get results in twenty minutes. Go to www.getmyHIVtest.com to order your kit. Knowing your status will protect you and your community, Black or white.
Despite making up just 13% of the population, Black people account for more than 40% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States. But what makes some Black folks more vulnerable to HIV than others?
Social vulnerability may play a role, according to new data published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. “Social vulnerability” is government jargon for the factors that make it hard for a community to bounce back from a natural disaster or public health threat—for example, low income, limited transportation and overcrowded or inadequate housing.
Researchers with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) looked at where the 13,807 Black folks diagnosed with HIV in 2018 lived. Using the CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index, they found that 75% of the Black people who acquired HIV lived in communities with the highest or second highest social vulnerability. Only 8% came from the least vulnerable communities.
When people use a combination of HIV prevention methods, researchers found there was a significant drop in HIV transmission.
Published in the academic journal HIV Medicine, the study found that using several methods such as taking PrEP, early HIV diagnosis from frequent testing, and proper antiretroviral treatment decreased transmission by 80 percent.
The research was evaluated at 56 Dean Street, which is a sexual health clinic and part of Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in London.
“We witnessed an 80% reduction in the number of HIV diagnoses between 2012 and 2017, following the introduction of a number of HIV prevention measures (PrEP introduction, early HIV diagnosis through frequent and facilitated access to HIV testing and timely ART used as treatment-as-prevention) were key to the success of this model,” lead author Nicolo Girometti, told Contagion. Girometti is also a consultant in HIV medicine at 56 Dean Street.
Conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Microbicide Trials Network (MTN), DESIRE focused on potential delivery methods for rectal microbicides—topical products being developed and tested to reduce a person’s risk of acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from anal sex. MTN researchers are particularly interested in on-demand options—used around the time of sex—and behaviorally congruent options that deliver anti-HIV drugs via products people may already be using as part of their sex routine.
“DESIRE stands out as a unique study because we took a step back and said, ‘Let’s figure out the modality without automatically pairing it with a drug’,” explained José A. Bauermeister, Ph.D., M.P.H., study protocol chair and Albert M. Greenfield Professor of Human Relations at the University of Pennsylvania. “It gave us the ability to manipulate the delivery method without having to worry about how reactions to a particular drug might confound the results. We also had people trying out these methods in their own lives, and only then asked them to weigh the attributes of each.” As such, he said, participants weren’t making choices based on theoretical concepts, but instead using real experiences to guide their preferences.
HIV does not reproduce outside a human host and cannot be transmitted through saliva, tears, or sweat. It is a common misconception that sharing dishes, shaking hands, or hugging can transmit HIV, says Anne M. Neilan, MD, MPH, Infectious Disease Physician at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Generally, it’s unlikely that you will contract HIV from oral sex. However, there are some circumstances in which this could happen, though uncommon. This article will discuss the likelihood of getting HIV through oral sex and how to avoid contracting or transmitting it.
“The likelihood of acquiring HIV from oral sex is far lower than vaginal or anal sex,” says Neilan. The risk is so low that scientists have not established a conclusive statistic, but a 1999 study estimates a 0.04% risk among male sexual partners.
Saliva contains secretory leukocyte protease inhibitors that inactivate the virus. Because of this HIV inhibitor, the virus reproduces less than it would in the blood cells.
Although the risk is low, unprotected oral sex still carries the risk of transmitting HIV, as well as sexually transmitted infections (STI). “Protection against HIV does not mean protection against all sexually transmitted infections,” says Neilan.
A person without HIV may contract the virus by giving or receiving any type of oral sex to or from a partner with HIV. Some risk factors increase the likelihood of contracting HIV through oral sex, which include:
The risk of HIV from oral sex may be minimal, but it’s still important to know how to avoid contracting and transmitting the virus.
Using dental dams, male and female condoms during oral sex reduces the likelihood of contracting HIV, but you must use them correctly, says Neilan. Refraining from oral sex when risk factors are present, and avoiding seminal or vaginal fluids in the mouth also lessen the risk, but does not completely eliminate it.
STIs like gonorrhea or syphilis can cause sores on the mucous membrane, increasing the chances of getting or transmitting HIV, so get tested regularly and seek treatment if needed.
In 2018, 37,968 people received an HIV diagnosis in the United States (US) and dependent areas. From 2014 to 2018, HIV diagnoses decreased 7% among adults and adolescents. However, annual diagnoses have increased among some groups.
Gay and bisexual men are the population most affected by HIV, with Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino gay and bi men having the highest rates of new infections.
The number of new HIV diagnoses was highest among people aged 25 to 34.
From the Advocate.com
Of all those who became HIV-positive, over a third (36 percent) were persistent meth users. Men aged 36-45 reported the most meth use, and those living in Western states had the highest incidence of the drug.
Persistent meth use is the biggest factor for seroconversion, researchers stated, followed by Black ethnicity and a syphilis diagnosis.
Researchers detailed the correlation between meth and HIV.
“Methamphetamine exacerbates HIV risk via increasing sexual libido while simultaneously reducing inhibitions,” the authors stated, according to AIDSMap. “Our findings highlight the need to address methamphetamine use and its associated risks among sexual and gender minorities, the likes of which may also serve to help end the HIV epidemic.”
A new study has found that HIV screening every three months compared to annually will improve clinical outcomes and be cost-effective among high-risk young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the United States. The report, led by researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), is being published online in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
“Young men who have sex with men account for one in five new HIV infections in the United States. Yet, more than half of young men who have sex with men and who are living with HIV don’t even know that they have it,” says Anne Neilan, MD, MPH, investigator in the MGH Division of Infectious Diseases and the Medical Practice Evaluation Center, who led the study.
“With so many youth with HIV being unaware of their status, this is an area where there are opportunities not only to improve care for individual youth but also to curb the HIV epidemic in the U.S. Despite these numbers, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention previously determined that there was insufficient youth-specific evidence to warrant changing their 2006 recommendation of an annual HIV screening among men who have sex with men.”
Bruce W. Furness, M.D., M.P.H., from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, and colleagues developed and evaluated a quality improvement initiative (Transforming Primary Care for LGBT People) to enhance the capacity of 10 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs; 123 clinical sites in nine states) to provide culturally affirming care.
The researchers found that FQHCs reported increases in culturally affirming practices, including collecting patient pronoun information (42.9 percent increase) and identifying LGBT patient liaisons (300.0 percent increase). Based on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) from electronic health records among nine FQHCs, SOGI documentation increased from 13.5 to 50.8 percent of patients. Screening of LGBT patients increased from 22.3 to 34.6 percent for syphilis, from 25.3 to 44.1 percent for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and from 14.8 to 30.5 percent for HIV among the eight FQHCs reporting the number of LGBT patients.
“FQHCs participating in this initiative reported improved capacity to provide culturally affirming care and targeted screening for LGBT patients,” the authors write.
Young gay sexual minority men—especially Black and Latino youth—have their first sexual experiences at younger ages, emphasizing a need for comprehensive and inclusive sex education, according to Rutgers researchers.
The study, published in the Journal of Sex Research, examined consensual sex behaviors to better understand same-sex sexual debut, or the age at which people first engage in sexual behaviors.
The researchers, part of the Rutgers School of Public Health’s Center for Health, Identity, Behavior and Prevention Studies (CHIBPS), found that 19 percent of participants had their first sexual experience before the age of 13.
The researchers also found that same-sex sexual encounters first happen, on average, at 14.5 years, with Hispanic/Latinx and Black non-Hispanic participants reporting a younger age for their first time performing oral sex or engaging in anal sex, compared to their peers.
Earlier age of sexual debut among sexual minority men is associated with a range of sexual and health risk behaviors, including increased likelihood of condomless sex; tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use; psychological distress; suicidality; and earlier age of HIV diagnosis.
[…] “As many schools are forced to redesign their classrooms and curricula to accommodate socially distanced or remote learning for COVID-19, this may be the perfect time to consider implementing comprehensive sex education programming to provide age-appropriate sexual health education for people of all genders and sexual orientations,” said Caleb LoSchiavo, doctoral student at the Rutgers School of Public Health and co-author.
The CDC recommends regular testing for bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among all sexually active gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) because they have a higher risk of infection. Chief among these STDs are gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Those most at risk also should be receiving recommended STD counseling services.
“Having an STD (like gonorrhea) makes it easier to get HIV or give it to others, so it’s important that you get tested to protect your health and the health of your partner,” states the CDC.
Despite these guidelines, there has been a constant uptick in STDs over the past decade, particularly among HIV-positive MSM, even though they are receiving care for their HIV, according to the authors who investigated the receipt of STD testing and associated services among these individuals and published their results online today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
The primary outcome of their study was to determine both deficiencies in bacterial STD testing and what risky behaviors result in these deficiencies among HIV-positive MSM—especially because having an STD increases the risk of transmitting HIV.
Young sexual minority men — including those who are gay, bisexual, queer or straight-identified men who have sex with men — do not fully understand their risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) due to a lack of information from health care providers, according to Rutgers researchers.
A Rutgers study published in the Journal of Community Health, examined what young sexual minority men — a high-risk and high-need population — know about HPV and the HPV vaccine and how health care providers communicate information about the virus and vaccine.
About 79 million Americans are infected with HPV, with about 14 million becoming newly infected each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As a sexually transmitted infection, HPV can lead to several types of cancer, including anal and penile cancer, and is particularly concerning for sexual minority men due to the high prevalence of HIV and smoking in this community and the low HPV vaccination rates overall among men.
Extensive evidence from HIV prevention research studies has firmly established that “Undetectable Equals Untransmittable,” or U=U. This means that people living with HIV who achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load — the amount of virus in their blood — by taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) as prescribed do not sexually transmit HIV to others. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates this strategy is 100% effective against the sexual transmission of HIV.
Now, a new study of nearly 112,000 men who have sex with men in the United States has found increasing acceptance of the U=U message in this population. Overall, 54% of HIV-negative participants and 84% of participants with HIV correctly identified U=U as accurate. The study was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. Study results were published online in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
“U=U has been validated repeatedly by numerous studies as a safe and effective means of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV,” said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., NIAID Director. “The increased understanding and acceptance of U=U is encouraging because HIV treatment as prevention is a foundation of efforts to end the epidemic in the United States and around the world. This public health message has the power to reduce stigma, protect the health of people living with HIV and prevent sexual transmission of HIV to others.”
Researchers examined a representative sample of LGB people in the United States from three age groups—young (18-25), middle ( 34-41) and older (52-59)—to understand the factors that influenced past utilization of LGBT-specific clinics and providers and interest in using them in the future.
“The discrepancy between past utilization and interest in future use of LGBT-specific providers suggests there is a disconnect between the type of healthcare many LGB people would like to have and what they have access to,” said lead author Alexander J. Martos, former Research Analyst at the Williams Institute. “Younger, Black LGB people and those with lower incomes reported the greatest interest in LGBT community-based healthcare.”
Some STIs (including HIV) can go unnoticed since symptoms can be mistaken for minor health problems like a cold or sore throat. Some may have no symptoms at all. The only way to know if you’re infected is to get tested.
If you send us your zip code, we can help find local testing near you. Most are free. You can also ask us questions about basic sexual health, including PrEP. Send a message to m4mInformation@pitt.edu. We’re here to help.
Researchers at the University of Washington have identified a worrisome new bacterial cluster that’s growing in prevalence among men who have sex with men and is resistant to antibiotics.
The drug-resistant strains were identified in Seattle and Montreal, although researchers believe they’re common worldwide. Known as Campylobacter coli, the bacteria cause severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and fever and are estimated to affect about 1.3 million people in the United States annually. The journal Clinical Infectious Diseasepublished the finding this month.
While the infection usually passes after a few days, it can pose a more serious threat to those with compromised immune systems.
Men who have sex with men are more prone to infection due to sexual practices like anal sex and rimming, according to the researchers. Transmission occurs when fecal matter enters another person’s body, and while it isn’t limited to any one population, gay men are more likely to experience drug-resistant infections because they’re more likely to have recieved antibiotics for similar infections in the past.
“The international spread of related isolates among MSM populations has been shown before for Shigella [another enteric pathogen], so it makes sense to see it in Campylobacter as well,” wrote the study’s lead author, Dr. Alex Greninger. “The global emergence of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in MSM poses an urgent public health challenge that may require new approaches for surveillance and prevention.”
Research says that men who have sex with other men make up 67% of new HIV infections. Then on top of that, 25 percent of Latino men who have sex with other men (MSM) will be infected with HIV in their lifetime. And, 50 percent of Black MSM will experience the same. That’s compared to 12.5 percent of white men. That said, men of color are less likely to use the HIV preventive drug pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP. Why is this?
As NBC writes, researchers believe the problem lies in accessibility issues to health care. Studies show health care providers are not prescribing Black and Latino men to PrEP. In addition, men of color are less aware of PrEP’s very existence. The CDC’s study found that 95% of white men, 87% of Latino men, and 43% of Black men are knowledgeable about PrEP. Then even worse, only 58% of white, 44% of Latino, and 43% of Black men said they discussed the preventative medication with a physician.
As Kanny told Reuters Health,“This type of research is critical to finding—and correcting — missed opportunities to offer PrEP to people at risk of HIV, particularly among African American and Latin gay and bisexual men.”
He said further: “It’s important for providers to take sexual histories of gay and bisexual men and to discuss PrEP as an option for HIV prevention with those who could potentially benefit from it,” said Kanny. “These discussions also help to destigmatize PrEP use, which is particularly important for increasing PrEP use among African American and bisexual men.”
There is a dearth of scientifically investigated, evidence-based interventions to address substance use, mental health conditions and violence victimization in sexual and gender minority youth, according to a research review led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and published today in the journal Pediatrics.
After poring over thousands of research publications spanning nearly two decades, the scientists identified only nine studies that evaluated such interventions, and most of these used suboptimal study designs, thereby limiting the validity of the findings. None of the programs would be sufficient to mitigate the substantial inequities faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth, the scientists concluded.
“While this knowledge gap is distressing, I think we can look at it as an opportunity,” said lead author Robert W.S. Coulter, Ph.D., M.P.H., assistant professor in Pitt Public Health’s Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences. “Promising programs are being created by community-based organizations that are ripe for rigorous evaluation by scientists to determine if they are successfully improving health among LGBTQ youth and, if so, whether they can be replicated in other communities.”